Scientific Foundations of the CrMS System
Found in Peer-Reviewed and Academic Literature

There has been a sizable amount published with regard to the scientific foundations which support the concepts of the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System. Many physicians have not accessed this medical literature because of a general disinterest and bias that exists within the medical profession against natural methods of family planing. Thus, clients often receive negative remarks from their physicians, such as “This has never been published in a peer-reviewed medical journal.” While this is often stated or something similar to it, it is highly inaccurate. A large volume of data has actually been published which supports the scientific validity of this system, but the bigger problem is the lack of interest where the physicians have simply not accessed that data which has been published. To assist in this, this web site publishes the following list of peer-reviewed and academic literature that has been published which supports the foundations of the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System.

Scientific Foundations of the Creighton Model

  1. Pommerenke WT: American Journal of Obstet Gynecol 52: 1023, 1946.
  2. Rydberg E: Acta. Obstet Gynec Scand 29 (fac.1):127, 1948.
  3. Cohen MR, Stein IF and Kaye BM: Spinnbarkeit: A Characteristic of Cervical Mucus. Fertil Steril 3: 201, 1952.
  4. Smith WT: The Pathology and Treatment of Leucorrhea, Churchill, London, 1855.
  5. Sims JM: British Medical Journal, 2: 465-492, 1868.
  6. Billings EL and Westmore A: The Billings Method: controlling Fertility Without Drugs or Devices. Random House, New York, New York, 1980.
  7. Roland M: A Simple Test for the Determination of Ovulation, Estrogen Activity and Early Pregnancy Using the Cervical Mucus Secretion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 63: 81-89, 1952.
  8. Zondek B and Rosen S: Cervical Mucus Arborization: Its Use in the Determination of Corpus Luteum Function. Obstet Gynecol 3: 463-470, 1954.
  9. Insler V, Melmed H, Eichenbrenner I., et al: The Cervical Score: A Simple Semiquantative Method for Monitoring of the Menstrual Cycle. Int J Gynec Obstet 10: 223-228, 1972.
  10. Clift AF: Early Studies on the Rheology of Cervical Mucus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 829-832, 1979.
  11. Cervical Mucus: Present State of Knowledge, In: Cervical Mucus in Human Reproduction. World Health Organization—Colloquium, Published Proceedings, Geneva, Switzerland, 1972.
  12. Hilgers TW and Prebil AM: The Ovulation Method—Vulvar Observations as an Index of Fertility/Infertility. Obstet Gynecol 53: 12-22, 1979.
  13. Faccioli G, Cortesi S, and Calderoni P: Structure of Human Cervical Mucus Correlation with Plasma Ovarian Hormone Levels. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis. 14:41-50, 1983.
  14. Garcia N, Giacchi E, Campo S, et al: Canalization of Human Cervical Mucus. Obstet Gynecol 64: 164-169, 1984.
  15. Odeblad E: Cervical Factors. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 5: 153-162, 1981.
  16. Odeblad E: The Mucus Symptoms Length and Subphases During the Fertile Age. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 10: 303-313, 1986.
  17. Odeblad E: The Biophysical Properties of the Cervical-Vaginal Secretions. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 7: 1-56, 1983.
  18. Odeblad E.: The Discovery of Different Types of Cervical Mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method. Bulletin of the Natural Family Planning Council of Victoria. 21: 3-34, Sept. 1994.
  19. Odeblad E. Molecular Biology of the Cyclic Changes of Cervical Mucus. Paper presented at the meeting “Scientific Bases and Problems of Natural Fertility Regulation,” sponsored by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican City, Italy, Nov. 16, Italy, Nov. 16, 1994.
  20. Rudolfsson C: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Cytometric Studies on Mucus from Single Cervical Glands. Int J Fert 16: 147-150, 1971.
  21. Faccioli G. Hormonal Bases of the Correspondence Between Microscopic and Ultra Microscopic Features of Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 131-136, 1984.
  22. Faccioli G: Preliminary Results on the Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of Infertile Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 381-385, 1984.
  23. Takano N, Maekawa I, Takamizawa H: Ultrastructure of Human Cervical Mucus Observed by Cryo-scanning Electron Microscopy. Fertil Steril 32: 604-607, 1979.
  24. Ferin J, Thomas, and Johansson EDB: Ovulation Detection. In: Human Reproduction: Conception and Contraception, (Hafez, E.S.E, and Evans, T.N., Eds.) Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1973.
  25. Moghissi KS, Syner FN, and Evans TN: A Composite Picture of the Menstrual Cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 405-416, 1972.
  26. Insler V, Glezerman M, Zeidel L, et al: Fertil Steril 33: 288-293, 1980.
  27. Brown JB, Harisson P, Smith MA, et al: Correlations Between the Mucus Symptoms and the Hormonal Markers of Fertility Throughout Reproductive Life. Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1981.
  28. Billings EL, Billings JJ, Brown JB, et al: Symptoms and Hormonal Changes Accompanying Ovulation. The Lancet, February 5, pp. 282-284, 1972.
  29. Flynn AM, and Lynch SS: Cervical Mucus Identification of the Fertile Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 83:545, 1976.
  30. Casey JH: The Correlation Between Midcycle Hormonal Profiles, Cervical Mucus and Ovulation in Normal Women. In:Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne Australia, p68, 1979.
  31. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, and Cavanagh D: Natural Family Planning-I. The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation. Obstet Gynecol 52: 575-582, 1978.
  32. Cortesi S, Rigoni G, Zen F, et al: Correlation of Plasma Gonadatropins and Ovarian Steroid Pattern with Symptomatic Changes in Cervical Mucus During the Menstrual Cycle in Normal Cycling Women. Contraception. 23: 635-641, 1981.
  33. Morishita H, Hashimoto T, Mitani H, et al: Cervical Mucus and Prediction of the Time of Ovulation. Gyn Obstet Invest 10: 157-162, 1979.
  34. Hilgers TW: Hormonal Profiles in Users of the Ovulation Method. In: Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne, Australia, p59, 1979.
  35. Leader A, Wiseman D, Taylor PJ: The Prediction of Ovulation: A Comparison of the Basal Body Temperature Graph, Cervical Mucus Score and Realtime Pelvic Ultrasonography. Fertil Steril 43: 385-388, 1985.
  36. Daily DC, Reuter K, Cohen S, et al: Follicle Size by Ultrasound versus Cervical Mucus Quality: Normal and Abnormal Patterns in Spontaneous Cycles. Fertil Steril 51: 598-603, 1989.
  37. Nulsen J, Wheeler C, Ausmanas M, et al: Cervical Mucus Changes in Relationship to Urinary Luteinizing Hormone. Fertil Steril 48: 783-786, 1987.
  38. Depares J, Ryder, REJ, Walker SM, et al: Ovarian Ultrasonography Highlights Precision of Symptoms of Ovulation as Markers of Ovulation. Brit Med J 292: 1562, 1986.
  39. Taylor RS, Woods JB and Guapo M.: Correlation of Vaginal Hormonal Cytograms with Cervical Mucus Symptoms. J Reprod Med 31, 1986.
  40. Hilgers, TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: Observation of Mucus Survey. St. Louis University Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).
  41. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM: The Statistical Parameters of the Mucus Cycle: A Study of 600 Cycles. St. Louis Univeristy Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript).
  42. Hilgers TW: Psychodynamics of the Use of the Ovulation Method. Unpublished manuscript. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center. Omaha, Nebraska, 1978.
  43. Fehring RJ, Lawrence DM, Sauvage CM: Self-esteem, Spiritual Well-being and Intimacy: A Comparison Among Couples Using NFP and Oral Contraceptives. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 13 (3/4): 227-236, 1989.
  44. Fehring RJ and Lawrence DM: Spiritual Well-being, Self-esteem and Intimacy Among Couples Using Natural Family Planning. Linacre Quarterly. pp. 18-29, August 1994.
  45. Hilgers TW: The Statistical Evaluation of Natural Methods of Family Planning. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 8: 226-264, 1984.
  46. Tietze C and Lewit S: Statistical Evaluation of Contraceptive Methods: Use-Effectiveness and Extended Use-Effectiveness. Demography 5: 931, 1968.
  47. Hilgers TW and Stanford JB: The Use-Effectiveness to Avoid Pregnancy of the Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Trials. J Repro Med 43:495-502, June1998.
  48. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, and Daly KD: The Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method as a Means of Achieving and Avoiding Pregnancy. Paper presented at the Education Phase III Continuing Education Conference for Natural Family Planning Practitioners, Mercy Fontenelle Center, Omaha, Nebraska, July 1980.
  49. Doud J: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model of NFP. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 9:54-72, 1985.
  50. Howard MP: Use Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method (Creighton Model) of Natural Family Planning. Paper presented at the Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Natural Family Planning, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, July 1990.
  51. Fehring RJ, Lawrence D, and Philpot C: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning. J Obstet Gynecol, and Neonat Nurs 23: 303-309, 1994.
  52. Tietze C: The Clinical Effectiveness of Contraceptive Methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 78: 650-656, 1959.
  53. Tietze C and Lewit S: The IUD and the Pill: Extended Use-Effectiveness. Fam Plan Perspec 3: 53-55, 1971.
  54. Tietze C and Lewit S: Use Effectiveness of Oral and Intrauterine Contraception. Fertil Steril 22:508-513, 1971.
  55. Marshall J: A Field Trial of the Basal Body Temperature Method of Regulation of Births. The Lancet, pp8-10, July 6,1968.
  56. Klaus H: Natural Family Planning: A Review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 37: 128-150, 1982.
  57. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM, et al: Cumulative Pregnancy Rates in Patients with Apparently Normal Fertility and Fertility-Focused Intercourse. J Reprod Med10: 864-866, 1992.
  58. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, and Hilgers SK: The Picture Dictionary of the CREIGHTON MODEL FertilityCare™ System. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, Nebraska, 1999.

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*"NaProTECHNOLOGY" is a registered trademark of the Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction. It can be freely used by any person or entity so long as its use reflects the medical concepts and values expressed in the textbook The Medical & Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY.